Alpha blockers may also be a useful adjunct in the treatment of both ureteral and renal stones with SWL. They may also reduce the urinary symptoms and pain associated with double-J ureteral stents. Further investigation is necessary to define the role of blockers in the treatment of proximal ureteral and renal stones, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms of renal stone clearance after surgical stone intervention.
The SAV value is an independent predictor of the success of ESWL and a useful tool for planning stone treatment. Patients with a SAV P956 HU are not ideal candidates for ESWL. The inclusion criteria for ESWL of stones with a SAV <500HUcan be expanded with regard to stone size, site, age, renal function and coagulation profile. In patients with a SAV of 500–1000 HU, factors like a body mass index of >30 kg/m2 and a lower calyceal location make them less ideal for ESWL. ª 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Arab Association of Urology.
This study shows that determination of stone density and stone size on CT KUB pre ESWL can help to predict the outcome of ESWL. We propose that stone density <500 HU and stone size < 5 mm are highly likely to result in successful ESWL.
In conclusion, ESWL has been used by urologists as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated urinary calculi in very elderly patients. Despite changes associated with aging, and the high prevalence of comorbidities, this procedure seems to be safe and well tolerated in elderly people.
Post‑PCNL complications are more commonly found in patients with history of preoperative UTI, previous history of renal surgeries, large stone burden, operative procedure more than 90 min, and presence of residual calculi.
In the present study, several factors appear to affect post‑PCNL prolonged urinary leakage. We suggest that patients who are at increased risk of prolonged urinary leakage double‑J stent should be placed at the end of PCNL procedure.
Each percutaneous renal guidance techniques has its advantages and disadvantages and no single technique is ideal in all circumstances. The two most commonly used modalities are ultrasonography and fluoroscopy. Color Doppler ultrasound, an addition to B-mode ultrasound guidance, can help avoid vascular injury, resulting in decreased intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. CT guidance is only used for access in complicated cases. MRI and robotic-assisted guidance are in their infancy and need more research. Endoscopic guide can improve the safety of renal access, but the cost, and experience of the operators need to be considered.
Several risk factors for urosepsis following PCNL for struvite stones have been identified. These risk factors should be taken into consideration in peri-operative care to mitigate the risks of urosepsis.
Our meta-analysis demonstrated that Microperc could produce an SFR that was comparable with that of Miniperc. Microperc was associated with lower hemoglobin drop, while Miniperc was associated with lower renal colic rates. In addition, the operation time and hospital stay time for both these procedures were similar.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is an effectivemethod for the treatment of upper urinary calculi with few complications. According to the results achieved by an experienced surgeon, the size of stone, staghorn stone, operation time, and degree of hydronephrosis were associated with the bleeding during minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy.