In conclusion, ESWL has been used by urologists as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated urinary calculi in very elderly patients. Despite changes associated with aging, and the high prevalence of comorbidities, this procedure seems to be safe and well tolerated in elderly people.
Post‑PCNL complications are more commonly found in patients with history of preoperative UTI, previous history of renal surgeries, large stone burden, operative procedure more than 90 min, and presence of residual calculi.
In the present study, several factors appear to affect post‑PCNL prolonged urinary leakage. We suggest that patients who are at increased risk of prolonged urinary leakage double‑J stent should be placed at the end of PCNL procedure.
Stone location, stone burden, and presence of hydronephrosis detected with NCCT were factors affecting PCNL outcome. Stone density values did not correlate with the rate of bleeding or success of PCNL. PT measured by NCCT may predict bleeding and may guide surgeons in determining preoperative blood requirements. The outcome of PCNL appeared to be better in patients with thicker renal parenchyma and should be taken into consideration in the clinical evaluation of patients undergoing PCNL.
UHCT is the most sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting RFs after PNL. It has higher sensitivity regardless of stone size compared to KUB and US. Additionally UHCT has higher capability of predicting occurrence of stone related events.
Superior calyceal access is a safe and most efficacious in terms of achieving complete stone clearance rate with reduced operative time, minimal blood loss, less need for a second puncture and auxiliary procedures at minimal complications.
we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.